Notes Bibliographic (NB)
If a source is cited again, only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s).
If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
No access date is required to be reported for electronic sources.
In the text, identify tables and figures separately, by number and in the order mentioned. Example: "in figure 3" rather than by location ("below").
Cite the source of the table and figure information with a “credit line” at the bottom of the table or figure and, if applicable, after the caption. The credit line should be distinguished from the caption by being enclosed in parenthesis or written in different type.
Books in Print
Note (first note)
Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.
|Shortened Note||Smith, Swing Time, 320.|
|Bibliography Citation||Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.|
Note (first note)
Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.
|Shortened Note||Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind, 37.|
|Bibliography Citation||Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.|
|Review from a Newspaper in Print||Note (first note)||Michiko Kakutani, “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges,” review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith, New York Times, November 7, 2016.|
|Shortened Note||Kakutani, “Friendship.”|
|Bibliographic Citation||Kakutani, Michiko. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.|
Blogs, Magazines, & Newspapers
Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.
|Magazine Article in Print- One Author||Note (first note)||Rebecca Mead, “The Prophet of Dystopia,” New Yorker, April 17, 2017, 43.|
|Shortened Note||Mead, “Dystopia,” 47.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Mead, Rebecca. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.|
|Newspaper Article from a Website- One Author||Note (first note)||Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times, March 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.|
|Shortened Note||Manjoo, “Snap.”|
|Bibliographic Citation||Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.|
|Newspaper Article form a Library Database - One Author||Note (first note)||Rob Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple,” Washington Post, July 5, 2007, LexisNexis Academic.|
|Shortened Note||Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone.”|
|Bibliographic Citation||Pegoraro, Rob. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.|
|Article from a Website (a webpage)||Note (first note)||Tanya Pai, “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps,” Vox, April 11, 2017, http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.|
|Shortened Note||Pai, “History of Peeps.”|
|Bibliographic Citation||Pai, Tanya. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.|
|Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.||Note (first note)||Eduardo B (Los Angeles), March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo, “Snap.”|
Chapter or Other Part of an Edited Book
Note (first note)
|Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay, ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.|
|Shortened Note||Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.|
|Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.|
Citing the collection as a whole instead
Note (first note)
|John D’Agata, ed., The Making of the American Essay (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.|
|Shortened Note||D’Agata, American Essay, 182.|
|D’Agata, John, ed. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.|
Online source: include a URL
|One Author||Note (first note)||Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627, http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.|
|Shortened Note||Melville, Moby-Dick, 722–23.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.|
|Two Authors||Note (first note)||Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc.19, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.|
|Shortened Note||Kurland and Lerner, Founders’ Constitution, chap. 4, doc. 29.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.|
|Note (first note)||Brooke Borel, The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 92, ProQuest Ebrary.|
|Shortened Note||Borel, Fact-Checking, 104–5.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Borel, Brooke. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. ProQuest Ebrary.|
No fixed page numbers:
|Note (first note)||Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.|
|Shortened Note||Austen, Pride and Prejudice, chap. 14.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.|
|Note (first note)||Kory Stamper, “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English,” interview by Terry Gross, Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017, audio, 35:25, http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.|
|Shortened Note||Stamper, interview.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Stamper, Kory. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.|
Articles consulted online
Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.
|One Author - Article in Print||
Note (first note)
|Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum,” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.|
|Shortened Note||Satterfield, “Livy,” 172–73.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165–76.|
|Three Authors - Library Database with a DOI||Note (first note)||Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.|
|Shortened Note||Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.|
One Author - Library Database Name (no URL or DOI).
|Note (first note)||Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.|
|Shortened Note||LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.|
|Bibliographic Citation||LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.|
Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note (first note), list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown in the chart below), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al.
|Four or more authors||Note (First Note)||Rachel A. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures,” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 465, https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.|
|Shortened Note||Bay et al., “Predicting Responses,” 466.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 463–73. https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.|
Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.
|Facebook private/direct message||Note (first note)||Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017|
|Twitter - Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text.||In the paragraph/sentence||Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).|
|Instagram - Formal situation.||Note (first note)||Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.|
|Shortened Note||Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style, “singular they.”|
|Bibliographic Citation||Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.|
Thesis or Dissertation
|Note (first note)||Cynthia Lillian Rutz, “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013), 99–100.|
|Shortened Note||Rutz, “King Lear,” 158.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013.|
|Note (first note)||Jhumpa Lahiri, In Other Words, trans. Ann Goldstein (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016), 146.|
|Shortened Note||Lahiri, In Other Words, 184.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Lahiri, Jhumpa. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016.|
It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date (as in example note 2).
|Webpage with a Known Author||Note (first note)||Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51, https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.|
|Shortened Note||Bouman, “Black Hole.”|
|Bibliographic Citation||Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.|
(ask your instructor if they prefer footnotes or endnotes)
|Description||Example: Print Book with One Author|
|Note (First Note)||
Contains all relevant information about the source:
Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
If you cite the same source again:
|Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.|
|Bibliographic Citation||Bibliographic Page||
The full citation
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.
In the text, note numbers are super-scripted
Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence they refer and be placed after any and all punctuation except the dash
List footnotes at the bottom of the page where the super-scripted number appears