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Citations - CMS: Author-Date System (AD)

Author-Date (AD) 

  • Preferred in the social sciences
  • Sources are briefly cited in the text as an in-text citation, by author’s last name and date of publication
  • The in-text citations correspond to a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided on the References page
  • Each source that shows up in the text must have a corresponding entry on the references list at the end of the paper
  • AD is nearly identical in content to NB style

On this Page

  • How Do I Cite?
  • No Publication Date
  • No Page Number
  • No Author
  • Two or more Authors - in-text and full citation
  • When the same page(s) of the same source are cited more than once in a single paragraph
  • When different pages of the same source are referenced in the same paragraph
  • Several sources by the same author written in the same year
  • Editor or Translator
  • Blocked Quotations (aka Extracts), Prose Quotations, & Poetry
  • In-Text Citation (Parenthetical)
  • Punctuation Marks and Quotations
  • Footnotes & Endnotes 
  • In-text citation with a brief comment
  • Italics for emphasis within a quotation
  • Tables & Figures

No Publication Date

If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”

No access date is required to be reported for electronic sources.

No Page Number

If you cannot name a specific page number, you have other options for helping your readers find your source work.

  • Section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), and note (n).
  • It may be helpful to cite specific chapters or paragraphs.
  • In the case of electronic works in particular, you may have to create your own signposts: e.g., (Lyotard 1984, under “Modernism”).

No Author

  • On the references page: cite by the title
  • For the in-text (parenthetical) citations, cite in shorted form (up to four keywords from the title)
  • Use italic or roman type as needed

Two or more Authors - in-text and full ciation

  • A semicolon should be used to separate two or more references in a single in-text citation
  • For multiple authors, use the conjunction “and”—not the ampersand (&)— both in the in-text citation as well as on the full citation on the references page
  • For the full citation, only invert the first authors name


The same networked logic that defines our general ontological sense of being in the world also defines the way in which texts (with implications for knowledge and power) are produced and circulate in the world: “At the pinnacle of contemporary production, information and communication are the very commodities produced; the network itself is the site of both production and circulation” (Hardt and Negri 2009, 298).

Reference Page

Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri. 2000. “Postmodernization, or the Informatization of Production.” In Empire, 280-303. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

Editor or Translator

When a source is listed on the references page by editor or translator instead of author, you do not include abbreviations such as ed. or trans. in the in-text citation.

In-Text Citaiton (Parenthetical)

Reference Citation

Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.


In-Text Citation (Parenthetical Citaiton)

(Pollan 2006, 99–100)

  • Parenthetical citation comprises the author’s last name, the publication date, and the page number of the source, when applicable
  • (Author Year, Page)
  • Do place a comma between the year and page numbers for in-text citations
  • Place author date citations before a mark of punctuation whenever possible
  • In-Text citations usually follow direct quotations/paraphrases
  • The hundreds digit of the page range need not be repeated if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range (133-35)

Punctuation Marks and Quotations

When it comes to multiple competing punctuation marks, Chicago prescribes the following:

Inside quotation marks

  • Commas
  • Periods

Outside quotation marks

  • Colons
  • Semicolons

The placement of question marks and exclamation points depends on whether they clarify the meaning of the quotation or the surrounding sentence as a whole.

In-Text Citation and a Brief Comment

Use a semicolon to separate an in-text citation and a relevant but short comment:

"Direct quote or paraphrase here " (Agamben 2008, 115-33; political issues are addressed here).

Italics for Emphasis within a Quotation

Let the reader know the italics were not a part of the original quotation.

  • Phrases such as “emphasis added,” “emphasis mine,” “italics added,” or “italics mine” are acceptable
  • The phrase should be in the parentheses following the quotation in the text itself (after other citation information and a semicolon, when applicable).
  • This information can also be presented in a footnote. (169; emphasis added) although, LAHC recommend placing it in the in-text citation for CMS AD style.


Agamben argues, because “in the camp, the state of exception, which was essentially a temporary suspension of the rule of law on the basis
of a factual state of danger, is now given a permanent spatial arrangement, which as such nevertheless remains outside the normal order”  (169;  emphasis added).  

How Do I Cite? (AD)


Books in Print

One Author Reference Smith, Zadie. 2016. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press.
  In-Text (Smith 2016, 315–16)
Two - Three Authors Reference Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. 2015. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  In-Text (Grazer and Fishman 2015, 12)


Book Reviews

Online Reference Kakutani, Michiko. 2016. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.
  In-Text (Kakutani 2016)
Library Database Reference

"The Red Convertible: selected and New stories, 1978-2008." Bookmarks, March-April 2009, 38. Gale Literature Resource Center.

Gale Literature Resource Center is the database name and is preferred. A permalink or URL is a second option to use instead. 

  In-Text (Red Convertible 2009)


Chapter or Other Part of an Edited Book

Edited By

Reference Page Example 

(include the page range for the chapter or part)

Thoreau, Henry David. 2016. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

In-Text Citation

(cite specific pages as usual)

(Thoreau 2016, 177–78)
Edition         Reference Page Example D’Agata, John, ed. 2016. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.
In-Text Citation
(D’Agata 2016, 177–78)



Library Database Reference Page Example

Schlosser, Eric. 2001. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. EBSCO eBook Collection.

In-Text Citation

(Schlosser 2001, 88)

Website Reference Page Example

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. 1917. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett, edited by William Allan Neilson. New York: P. F. Collier & Son.

In-Text Citation (Dostoevsky 1917, 444)
Other Reference Page Example

Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle.

In-Text Citation (Austen 2007, chap. 3)

Reference Page: Name of the database is preferred, use the URL if database is not available.

In-text citation: If page number(s) is not available, cite a section title, chapter, or other number in the text.



Reference  Stamper, Kory. 2017. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25.
In-Text  (Stamper 2017)



One Author Reference  Satterfield, Susan. 2016. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April): 165–76.

(Satterfield 2016, 170)

One Author Reference  LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.
In-Text  (LaSalle 2017, 95)
Two or More Authors Reference  Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34.

(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 9–10)

Four or More Authors Reference  Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. 2017. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May): 463–73.

(Bay et al. 2017, 465)

Page number: 

  • In the reference list, include the page range for the whole article.
  • In the text, cite specific page numbers.

For articles consulted online, include a DOI, permalink, URL, or the name of the database in the reference list entry. When choosing to use the DOI or URL, this is the preferred format:

  1. DOI that begins with
  2. Database Permalink
  3. URL from the browser

Four or more authors:

  • Reference Citation: list up to ten
  • In Text Citation: list only the first, followed by et al.

More than ten authors:

  • Reference Citation: list the first seven followed by et al.
  • In-Text Citation: list only the first, followed by et al.


Magazines & Newspapers

Library Database Reference  Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. MasterFILE Complete (database name) (or Permalink or URL).
In Text  (Manjoo 2017)
Website Reference  Pai, Tanya. 2017. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017.
In-Text  (Pai 2017)
Print Reference  Mead, Rebecca. 2017. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.
In-Text  (Mead 2017, 43)

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly.

Date: in the reference list, include the year along with the month and day.

Page numbers:

  • Reference citation: omit 
  • In-Text citation: should be listed

Online sources: include the name of the database, permalink, or URL. 


Readers’ comments are placed in the in-text citation but omitted from a reference list.

(Eduardo B [Los Angeles], March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo 2017)


Personal Communication

Email, Text Message, and Direct Messages Reference Citation Do not cite on the References page
  In-Text Citation (Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017)

Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text only; they are rarely included in a reference list.


Social Media

Twitter In the body of the paper Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).
Facebook Reference Citation Chicago Manual of Style. 2015. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015.
  In-Text Citation

(Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

comment option:

(Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

Instagram Reference Citation Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016.
  In-Text Citation (Souza 2016)
  • Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example above).
  • If a more formal citation is needed, a reference list entry may be appropriate.
  • In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post.
  • Comments are cited in reference to the original post.

Thesis & Dissertation

Reference Page 

Navarro-Garcia, Guadalupe. 2016. “Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents.” PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles. Proquest Dissertations & Theses Global.

In-Text Citation

(Navarro-Garcia 2016, 44)

Reference Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. 2013. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.
In-Text (Rutz 2013, 99–100)


Translated Books

Reference Page Example Lahiri, Jhumpa. 2016. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
In-Text Citation Example

(Lahiri 2016, 146)



Website Reference Citation Google. 2017. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017.
  In-Text Citation (Google 2017)
Webpage Reference Citation Bouman, Katie. 2016. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51.
  In-Text Citation (Bouman 2016)
Website or Webpage with No Date Reference Citation Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017.
  In-Text Citation (Yale University, n.d.)

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples above.

For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, use n.d. (for “no date”) in place of the year and include an access date.

When the same page(s) of the same source are cited more than once in a single paragraph.

Only cite the source after the last quote/paraphrase or at the end of the paragraph.

Below is one paragraph containing the following:

1st Yellow Quote:

  • No in-text citation
  •  This is because the 2nd yellow quote is from the same page

2nd Yellow Quote:

  • Full in-text citation (author year, page)
  • It states that both the 1st and 2nd yellow quote come from the same author, source, and page

3rd Yellow Quote:

  •  Brief in-text citation - (page)
  • It is from the same author and source as the 1st and 2nd yellow quote BUT from a different page
  • Therefore, the in-text citation only contains the page number


This focus on oneness or unity, on the whole rather than on individual parts,
derived from Enlightenment thinking: “The project [of modernity] amounted to an
extraordinary intellectual effort on the part of Enlightenment thinkers to develop objective
science, universal morality and law, and autonomous art according to their inner     
logic.” Science, so the story went, stood as inherently objective inquiry that could
reveal truth—universal truth at that. Enlightenment thinkers, such as Kant, believed in the
“universal,  eternal,  and . . . immutable  qualities  of  all  of  humanity” (Harvey 1990, 12); by
extension, “equality, liberty, faith in human intelligence . . . and  universal  reason”  were
widely held beliefs and seen as unifying forces (13). 

When different page(s) of the same source are referenced in the same paragraph

Include a full citation upon the first quote/paraphrase and provide only page numbers thereafter. 

1st Orange Quote:

  • Full in-text citation (author year, page)

2nd Orange Quote:

  •  Brief in-text citation - (page)
  • It is from the same author and source as the 1st orange quote but from a different page
  • Therefore, the in-text citation only contains the page number

Science, so the story went, stood as inherently objective inquiry that could
reveal truth—universal truth at that. Enlightenment thinkers, such as Kant, believed in the
“universal,  eternal,  and . . . immutable  qualities  of  all  of  humanity” (Harvey 1990, 12); by
extension, “equality, liberty, faith in human intelligence . . . and  universal  reason”  were
widely held beliefs and seen as unifying forces (13). 

Several Sources by the Same Author Written in the Same Year

List them alphabetically by title on your references page

  • Append the letters a, b, c, etc., to the year of publication 
  • When an author’s name appears in the text, the date of the work cited should follow, even when articulated in the possessive
  • Also note that Chicago distinguishes between authors and works
    • Preferred:
      • “Foucault’s (1984a) work suggests . . .” 
    • Technically permissible:
      • While “in Foucault 1984a” 



Foucault, Michel. 1984a. “The  Means  of  Correct  Training.”  In The Foucault Reader, edited by Paul Rabinow, 188-205. New York: Pantheon.

Foucault, Michel. 1984b. “Panopticism.”  In The Foucault Reader, edited by Paul Rabinow, 206-13. New York: Pantheon.

Foucault, Michel. 1984c. “What  is  an  Author?”  In The Foucault Reader, edited by Paul  Rabinow, 101-20. New York: Pantheon.

 Foucault, Michel. 1984d. “What  is  Enlightenment?”  In The Foucault Reader, edited by Paul Rabinow, 32-50. New York: Pantheon.


Blocked Quotations (aka Extracts), Prose Quotations, & Poetry

  • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked
  • Block two or more lines of poetry
  • Singled spaced
  • No quotation marks
  • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
  • Leave an extra line space immediately before and after
  • Indent.5” (the same as you would the start of a new paragraph)
  • The citations for block quotations begin after the final punctuation of the quotation
  • No period is required either before or after the opening or closing parentheses of block quotation documentation


Footnotes & Endnotes

Only use footnotes and endnotes for Author Date style if your instructor requires it. 

  • They are used to supplement the Author Date style—to provide additional relevant commentary and/or to cite sources that do not readily lend themselves to the Author Date References system.


In the text, note numbers are super-scripted

  • In the notes themselves, note numbers are full sized, not raised, and followed by a period
  • Super-scripting numbers in both places is also acceptable


Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence they refer and be placed after any and all punctuation except the dash

  • Note numbers should also begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper, article, or chapter



List footnotes at the bottom of the page where the super-scripted number appears

  • The first line is indented .5” from the left margin
  • Subsequent lines within a note should be formatted flush left
  • Leave an extra line space between notes
  • Citations within such notes are treated the same as they would be in the text itself




  • The identical citation format as footnotes but are collected in a numbered-order “Notes” page at the end of the paper
  • The page title Notes is placed before the References page
  • Endnotes are single-spaced with double-spaced between

Tables & Figures

  • Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
  • Every table should have a number and a (short and descriptive) title, flush left on the line above it.
  • Table 1. Title without a terminal period
  • Every figure should have a number and a caption, flush left on the line below the figure.
    •   Figure 2. Caption with or without a terminal period.
  • Any figure or table that uses symbols or patterns should be accompanied with a key to identify them, either within the figure or table itself or in its caption.
  • In the text, identify tables and figures separately, by number and in the order mentioned. Example: "in figure 3" rather than by location ("below").

  • Cite the source of the table and figure information with a “credit line” at the bottom of the table or figure and, if applicable, after the caption. The credit line should be distinguished from the caption by being enclosed in parenthesis or written in different type.

    • Cite a source as you would for parenthetical (in-text) citation, and include full information in an entry on your References page.
    • Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by...).
    • If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period.