If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
No access date is required to be reported for electronic sources.
If you cannot name a specific page number, you have other options for helping your readers find your source work.
The same networked logic that defines our general ontological sense of being in the world also defines the way in which texts (with implications for knowledge and power) are produced and circulate in the world: “At the pinnacle of contemporary production, information and communication are the very commodities produced; the network itself is the site of both production and circulation” (Hardt and Negri 2009, 298).
Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri. 2000. “Postmodernization, or the Informatization of Production.” In Empire, 280-303. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
When a source is listed on the references page by editor or translator instead of author, you do not include abbreviations such as ed. or trans. in the in-text citation.
Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.
In-Text Citation (Parenthetical Citaiton)
When it comes to multiple competing punctuation marks, Chicago prescribes the following:
Inside quotation marks
Outside quotation marks
The placement of question marks and exclamation points depends on whether they clarify the meaning of the quotation or the surrounding sentence as a whole.
Let the reader know the italics were not a part of the original quotation.
Agamben argues, because “in the camp, the state of exception, which was essentially a temporary suspension of the rule of law on the basis
of a factual state of danger, is now given a permanent spatial arrangement, which as such nevertheless remains outside the normal order” (169; emphasis added).
Books in Print
|One Author||Reference||Smith, Zadie. 2016. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press.|
|In-Text||(Smith 2016, 315–16)|
|Two - Three Authors||Reference||Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. 2015. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.|
|In-Text||(Grazer and Fishman 2015, 12)|
|Online||Reference||Kakutani, Michiko. 2016. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.|
"The Red Convertible: selected and New stories, 1978-2008." Bookmarks, March-April 2009, 38. Gale Literature Resource Center.
Gale Literature Resource Center is the database name and is preferred. A permalink or URL is a second option to use instead.
|In-Text||(Red Convertible 2009)|
Reference Page Example
(include the page range for the chapter or part)
|Thoreau, Henry David. 2016. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.|
(cite specific pages as usual)
|(Thoreau 2016, 177–78)|
|Edition||Reference Page Example||D’Agata, John, ed. 2016. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.|
|(D’Agata 2016, 177–78)|
|Library Database||Reference Page Example||
Schlosser, Eric. 2001. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the American Meal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. EBSCO eBook Collection.
(Schlosser 2001, 88)
|Website||Reference Page Example||
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. 1917. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett, edited by William Allan Neilson. New York: P. F. Collier & Son. https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.
|In-Text Citation||(Dostoevsky 1917, 444)|
|Other||Reference Page Example||
Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle.
|In-Text Citation||(Austen 2007, chap. 3)|
Reference Page: Name of the database is preferred, use the URL if database is not available.
In-text citation: If page number(s) is not available, cite a section title, chapter, or other number in the text.
|Reference||Stamper, Kory. 2017. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.|
|One Author||Reference||Satterfield, Susan. 2016. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April): 165–76.|
(Satterfield 2016, 170)
|One Author||Reference||LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.|
|In-Text||(LaSalle 2017, 95)|
|Two or More Authors||Reference||Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.|
(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 9–10)
|Four or More Authors||Reference||Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. 2017. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May): 463–73. https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.|
(Bay et al. 2017, 465)
For articles consulted online, include a DOI, permalink, URL, or the name of the database in the reference list entry. When choosing to use the DOI or URL, this is the preferred format:
Four or more authors:
More than ten authors:
Magazines & Newspapers
|Library Database||Reference||Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. MasterFILE Complete (database name) (or Permalink or URL).|
|In Text||(Manjoo 2017)|
|Website||Reference||Pai, Tanya. 2017. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.|
|Reference||Mead, Rebecca. 2017. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.|
|In-Text||(Mead 2017, 43)|
Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly.
Date: in the reference list, include the year along with the month and day.
Online sources: include the name of the database, permalink, or URL.
Readers’ comments are placed in the in-text citation but omitted from a reference list.
(Eduardo B [Los Angeles], March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo 2017)
|Email, Text Message, and Direct Messages||Reference Citation||Do not cite on the References page|
|In-Text Citation||(Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017)|
Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text only; they are rarely included in a reference list.
|In the body of the paper||Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).|
|Reference Citation||Chicago Manual of Style. 2015. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.|
(Chicago Manual of Style 2015)
(Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style 2015)
|Reference Citation||Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.|
|In-Text Citation||(Souza 2016)|
Navarro-Garcia, Guadalupe. 2016. “Integrating Social Justice Values in Educational Leadership: A Study of African American and Black University Presidents.” PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles. Proquest Dissertations & Theses Global.
(Navarro-Garcia 2016, 44)
|Reference||Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. 2013. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.|
|In-Text||(Rutz 2013, 99–100)|
|Reference Page Example||Lahiri, Jhumpa. 2016. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.|
|In-Text Citation Example||
(Lahiri 2016, 146)
|In-Text Citation||(Google 2017)|
|Webpage||Reference Citation||Bouman, Katie. 2016. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.|
|In-Text Citation||(Bouman 2016)|
|Website or Webpage with No Date||Reference Citation||Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.|
|In-Text Citation||(Yale University, n.d.)|
It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples above.
For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, use n.d. (for “no date”) in place of the year and include an access date.
List them alphabetically by title on your references page
Foucault, Michel. 1984a. “The Means of Correct Training.” In The Foucault Reader, edited by Paul Rabinow, 188-205. New York: Pantheon.
Foucault, Michel. 1984b. “Panopticism.” In The Foucault Reader, edited by Paul Rabinow, 206-13. New York: Pantheon.
Foucault, Michel. 1984c. “What is an Author?” In The Foucault Reader, edited by Paul Rabinow, 101-20. New York: Pantheon.
Foucault, Michel. 1984d. “What is Enlightenment?” In The Foucault Reader, edited by Paul Rabinow, 32-50. New York: Pantheon.
Only use footnotes and endnotes for Author Date style if your instructor requires it.
In the text, identify tables and figures separately, by number and in the order mentioned. Example: "in figure 3" rather than by location ("below").
Cite the source of the table and figure information with a “credit line” at the bottom of the table or figure and, if applicable, after the caption. The credit line should be distinguished from the caption by being enclosed in parenthesis or written in different type.