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Citations - CMS: Formatting & Sample Papers

Author Date (AD)

Notes Bibliographic (NB)


  • Typed using a word processing program such as Microsoft Word.
  • Margins should be set at no less than 1" and no greater than 1.5".
  • 12 pt. Times New Roman font.
  • Double-spaced, with the following exceptions
    • Single space block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions
    • Blocked quotes:
      • A prose quotation of five or more lines 
      • Do not get enclosed in quotation marks
      • An extra line space should immediately precede and follow a blocked quotation
      • Should be indented .5” as a whole
  • Notes and bibliographies should be singled-spaced internally; however, leave an extra line space between note and bibliographic entries. 
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. 
  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers. 
    • CMS recommends you devise your own format but use consistency as your guide. 
      • For Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below. 
  • Put an extra line space before and after subheadings, and avoid ending them with periods. 


Title Page 

  • Class papers will either include a title page or include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines should your instructor or context require a title page:  
    • Written in all caps
    • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
    • Your name and class information should follow several lines later. 
    • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.


Main Body

  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized. 
  • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name. 
    • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized. 
    • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks. 
    • Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization.
      • Lowercase terms used to describe periods, for example, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
  • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation is singled-spaced and takes no quotation marks, but you should leave an extra line space immediately before and after. Indent the entire quotation .5” (the same as you would the start of a new paragraph). 



Chicago has an optional system of five heading levels.

Level Format

  1. Centered, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization 
  2. Centered, Regular Type, Headline-style Capitalization
  3. Flush Left, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization  
  4. Flush left, roman type, sentence-style capitalization
  5. Run in at beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italic type, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period.


  • Label the first page of your comprehensive list of sources:

    • Bibliography: for Notes and Bibliography (NB) style

    • References: for Author Date style

  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry. 

  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries. 

  • Entries are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is listed, the title or keyword by which the reader would search for the source may be used instead.

  • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries. 

    • For two to three authors, write out all names. 

    • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations. 

    • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text. 

  • Write out publishers’ names in full. 
  • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.  
    • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”

  • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible. 

  • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).​

  • The 3-em dash (---) should be used to replace authors or editors’ names who hold multiple, successive entries in a bibliography.


  1. Open MS Word
  2. Change the font to Times New Roman
  3. Change the font size to 12 pt.
  4. Click the Paragraph menu icon noted in the red box below:

  1. Change the spacing to 0 pt for Before and After
  2. Change the line spacing to Double
  3. Make sure the box is checked
  4. Click OK


9.  Click the Page Layout tab

10. Click the Margins icon

11. Click Normal (1” on all sides)

12. Click the Home tab



  1. Click the Insert tab
  2. Click Header
  3. Click Blank
  4. Click the Home tab
  5. Click right alignment
  6. Type your last name
  7. Highlight the text and change the font type and font size to Times New Roman 12 pt.
  8. Hit the space bar one time after your last name
  9. Click the Insert tab
  10. Click Page Number
  11. Click Current Position
  12. Click Plain Number
  13. Click the Design tab
  14. Click Different First Page (title pages are not numbered)
  15. Click Close Header & Footer


Footnotes & Endnotes

  1. Click References
  2. Place the cursor where you want to insert the footnote/endnote
  3. Click Insert Footnote or Insert Endnote and type the information needed



  1. The last page of the paper
  2. Click center alignment and type Bibliography
  3. Hit the enter key one time
  4. Open the Paragraph dialog box
  5. Select Hanging from the Indentation/Special drop-down box
  6. Select Single from the Line Spacing drop-down box
  7. Click OK


Navigate to the following resources for examples on in-text citations and your reference/bibliographic page.  

NB = Notes Bibliographic

AD = Author Date

The Chicago Manual of Style Online - Notice the tabs for NB & AD

Purdue -  select your material type from the menu on the left.

  • Books
  • Periodicals
  • Web Sources
  • Film and Television
  • Interviews and Personal Communication
  • Lectures and Presentations
  • Public and Unpublished Materials

CMOS NB PowerPoint Presentation

Citation Style Chart (MLA, APA, CMS): Purdue Quick Reference Chart

The Graduate Student

  • Footnotes
  • Endnotes
  • Reference Page