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Citations - MLA: When Information Is Missing

Click and View: How Do I Cite?

No Author

If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title/name of the item you are citing instead.

Note: an author/creator won't necessarily be a person's name. It may be an organization or corporation, for example Health California or a username on a site such a YouTube.


If an item is signed as being created by Anonymous, use "Anonymous" where you'd normally put the author's name.

Alphabetical Order in References List

When putting works in alphabetical order, ignore initial articles such as "the", "a", or "an". For example the title The Best of California would be alphabetized as if it started with the word Best instead of the word The.

If the title begins with a number, alphabetize it as if the number was spelled out. For example the title 5 Ways to Succeed in Business would be alphabetized under F as if it had started with the word Five .

No Date

If no date is provided, skip that information.

No Page Numbers

Page numbers may not be provided for some items, such as online materials. If this is the case leave the page numbers out of the citation.

No Database Name

If you find an article or eBook using the library databases make sure to look for the database name listed on the detailed record (usually listed towards the bottom).

If it is not listed on the detailed record and you can't tell which one database it is from, enter the name of the database provider (e.g. Proquest, EBSCO, etc.) as the database.

Adapted From

This guide is used/adapted with the permission of Seneca College Libraries.