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Citations - CMS (Chicago): CMS (Chicago)

CMS Links

Use these websites to quickly create citations or look for the citation generator tool within electronic databases.

Citation Generators

Always double check the created citation with another source such as Purdue OWL.

Purdue OWL: CMS

Navigate to the following resources for examples on in-text citations and your reference/bibliographic page.  

NB = Notes Bibliographic

AD = Author Date

 

The Chicago Manuel of Style Online - Notice the tabs for NB & AD.

The Graduate Student

  • Footnotes
  • Endnotes
  • Reference Page

Purdue - Select the source type from the menu on the left.

  • Books
  • Periodicals
  • Web Sources
  • Film and Television
  • Interviews and Personal Communication
  • Lectures and Presentations
  • Public and Unpublished Materials

Purdue Citation Style Chart (MLA, APA, CMS): Purdue Quick Reference Chart

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Formating Microsoft Word for CMS

General - Citations

What is CMS?

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation and has been lovingly called the “editors’ bible.”

When to use CMS?

There is two CMS documentation styles:

1. Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in humanitiesliterature, history, and the arts.

Reference sources through footnote or endnote citations in their writing and through bibliography pages. It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources. The NB system is most commonly used in the discipline of history.

​2. Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social/sciences. Sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

What is a Citation?

A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:

  • Information about the author.
  • Title of the work.
  • Name and location of the company that published your copy of the source.
  • Date your copy was published.
  • Page numbers of the material you are borrowing.

Why Cite?

Giving credit to the original author by citing sources is the only way to use other people's work without plagiarizing. But there are a number of other reasons to cite sources:

  • Citations are extremely helpful to anyone who wants to find out more about your ideas and where they came from.
  • Not all sources are good or right -- your own ideas may often be more accurate or interesting than those of your sources. Proper citation will keep you from taking the rap for someone else's bad ideas.
  • Citing sources shows the amount of research you've done.
  • Citing sources strengthens your work by lending outside support to your ideas.

When to Cite?

Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations almost always require citation:

  • Quotations.
  • Paraphrasing.
  • Using an idea that someone else has already expressed.
  • Making specific reference to the work of another.
  • Someone else's work has been critical in developing your own ideas.

"What is a Citation?." Plagiarism.org. iParadigms, LLC, 2015. Web. 22 Nov. 2015. http://www.plagiarism.org/.

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Formatting: Notes-Bibliographic & Author-Date Style

CMS Guidelines

CMS Sample Paper

General Format

  • Typed using a word processing program such as Microsoft Word.
  • Margins should be set at no less that 1" and no greater than 1.5".
  • 12 pt. Times New Roman font.
  • Double-spaced, with the following exceptions: 
    • Block quotations, table titles, and figure captions should be single-spaced. 
      • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be blocked. 
      • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.  
      • An extra line space should immediately precede and follow a blocked quotation. 
      • Blocked quotations should be indented .5” as a whole. 
  • Notes and bibliographies should be singled-spaced internally; however, leave an extra line space between note and bibliographic entries. 
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. 
  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers. 
    • CMS recommends you devise your own format but use consistency as your guide. 
      • For Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below. 
  • Put an extra line space before and after subheadings, and avoid ending them with periods. 

 

Title Page 

  • Class papers will either include a title page or include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines should your instructor or context require a title page:  

    • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page. 

    • Your name and class information should follow several lines later. 

    • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.

 
Main Body
  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized. 
  • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name. 

    • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized. 

    • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks. 

    • Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization.

      • Lowercase terms used to describe periods, for example, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).

  • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation is singled-spaced and takes no quotation marks, but you should leave an extra line space immediately before and after. Indent the entire quotation .5” (the same as you would the start of a new paragraph). 

 

Headings

Chicago has an optional system of five heading levels.

Level Format

  1. Centered, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization 
  2. Centered, Regular Type, Headline-style Capitalization
  3. Flush Left, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization  
  4. Flush left, roman type, sentence-style capitalization
  5. Run in at beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italic type, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period.
 
This image shows the levels of heading in a CMS paper.
 
 
 

For additional information visit Purdue:

CMS Sample Paper

CMS Guidelines

CMS has two documentation styles:
  1. Notes-Bibliography System (NB)

  2. Author-Date System

Ask your professor which one you should use.

 

NB Sample Paper with only an endnotes page (no footnotes)

NB Sample Paper

NB Citation Examples: Chicago Manual of Style Online

 

Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in humanitiesliterature, history, and the arts.

In-Text - a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.

 

Notes - Footnote or Endnote - begins with the appropriate number followed by a period and then a space.

  • Footnotes are placed at the bottom of each page.
  • Endnotes are placed at the end of the paper.

 

1. First note for each source contains all relevant information about the source:

  • author’s full name
  • source title
  • facts of publication
  • page number(s)

Michael PollanThe Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

 

2. If you cite the same source again: 

  • surname of the author
  • a shortened form of the title (if more than four words)
  • page number(s)

PollanOmnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

 

3. If you cite the same source and page number two or more times consecutively

  • Ibid. 

4. If you use the same source but a different page number

  • Ibid., (new page number).  
    • Example: Ibid., 13.

 

5. Bibliographic Citation

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

 

Notes: Footnotes/Endnotes

  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper. 

  • In the text, note numbers are super-scripted. 

    • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after any and all punctuation. 

    • In the notes themselves, note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (super-scripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable). 

    • The first line of a footnote is indented .5” from the left margin. 

      • Subsequent lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. 

      • Leave an extra line space between footnotes. 

    • Place commentary after documentation when a footnote contains both, separated by a period. 

      • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon. 

      • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range. (132-35)

For more examples: 

NB Sample Paper with only an endnotes page (no footnotes)

NB Sample Paper

NB Citation Examples: Chicago Manual of Style Online

One Author

(Note) Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

(In-Text) PollanOmnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

(Bibliographic Citation) Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

CMS has two documentation styles:

  1. Notes-Bibliography System (NB)

  2. Author-Date System

Ask your professor which one you should use.

 

Author-Date Sample Paper

Author Date Citation Examples: Chicago Manual of Style Online

 

​Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content to NB style but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social/sciences. Sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

 

  1. Reference Citation
  2. Parenthetical Citation = In-Text Citation

 

  1. Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.
  2. (Pollan 2006, 99–100)
  • Use a parenthetical citation to identify sources as they show up in the text.
    • Each source that shows up in the text must have a corresponding entry in the references list at the end of the paper.

 

  • Parenthetical citation comprises the author’s last name, the publication date, and the page number of the source, when applicable.
    • Keep in mind that when a source is listed on the references page by editor or translator instead of author, you do not include abbreviations such as ed. or trans. in the intext citation.

 

  • When the same page(s) of the same source are cited more than once in a single paragraph.
    • Only cite the source (in full) after the last reference or at the end of the paragraph

 

  • When the same source but different page numbers are referenced in the same paragraph
    • Include a full citation upon the first reference and provide only page numbers thereafter. 

 

  • When a source has no identifiable author
    • Cite it by its title, on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations.
    • Use italic or roman type as needed.

 

  • There should be no punctuation between the author’s last name and the year.
    • Do place a comma between the year and page numbers when used in parenthetical citation.

 

  • Place author date citations before a mark of punctuation whenever possible.
    • Parenthetical citations usually follow direct quotations.
      • It is acceptable to place them before such a quotation if it allows the date to be placed next to the author’s name.

 

  • If you cannot name a specific page number, you have other options for helping your readers find your source work.
    • Section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), and note (n).
    • It may be helpful to cite specific chapters or paragraphs.
    • In the case of electronic works in particular, you may have to create your own signposts: e.g., (Lyotard 1984, under “Modernism”).

 

  • Chicago’s Author-Date References style requires that each time you refer to or otherwise use source material in your paper, you have to include a parenthetical citation for the source.
    • Be wary of letting your citation practices become redundant and intrusive, but remember, that it’s better to over cite than to under cite.

 

  • When you have several sources by the same author written in the same year, list them alphabetically by title on your references page
    • Append the letters a, b, c, etc., to the year of publication.
    • When an author’s name appears in the text, the date of the work cited should follow, even when articulated in the possessive.
    • Also note that Chicago distinguishes between authors and works.
      • While “in Foucault 1984a” is technically permissible,
      • “Foucault’s (1984a) work suggests . . .” is preferred.

 

  • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.”
    • Singled spaced and takes no quotation marks, but you should leave an extra line space immediately before and after.
    • Indent the entire quotation .5” (the same as you would the start of a new paragraph).
    • The citations for block quotations begin after the final punctuation of the quotation.
      • No period is required either before or after the opening or closing parentheses of block quotation documentation. 

 

  • Notice that when a page range is cited, the hundreds digit need not be repeated if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range. (133-35)

 

  • When you use italics for emphasis within a quotation, you have to let the reader know the italics were not a part of the original quotation.
    • Phrases such as “emphasis added,” “emphasis mine,” “italics added,” or “italics mine” are all acceptable.
    • The phrase should be in the parentheses following the quotation in the text itself (after other citation information and a semicolon, when applicable).
    • This information can also be presented in a footnote. (169; emphasis added)

 

  • A semicolon is also used to separate a citation and a relevant but short comment (e.g., Agamben 2008, 115-33; political issues are addressed here) in a single parenthetical citation.

 

  • A semicolon should be used to separate two or more references in a single parenthetical citation.

 

  • For multiple authors, use the conjunction “and”—not the ampersand (&)— both in the text itself as well as on the references page. 

 

Footnotes/Endnotes 

Ask your professor if you are required to use footnotes or endnotes with Author Date style. 

 
  • Footnotes or endnotes can be used to supplement the Author Date References style—to provide additional relevant commentary and/or to cite sources that do not readily lend themselves to the Author Date References system.

 

  • In the text, note numbers are super-scripted.
    • In the notes themselves, note numbers are full sized, not raised, and followed by a period.
    • Super-scripting numbers in both places is also acceptable.

 

  • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after any and all punctuation except the dash.
    • Note numbers should also begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper, article, or chapter.

 

  • The first line of a footnote is indented .5” from the left margin.
    • Subsequent lines within a note should be formatted flush left.
    • Leave an extra line space between notes.
    • Citations within such notes are treated the same as they would be in the text itself.
 

References/Bibliography

  • Label the first page of your comprehensive list of sources:

    • Bibliography: for Notes and Bibliography (NB) style

    • References: for Author Date style

  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry. 

  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries. 

  • Entries are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is listed, the title or keyword by which the reader would search for the source may be used instead.

  • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries. 

    • For two to three authors, write out all names. 

    • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations. 

    • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text. 

  • Write out publishers’ names in full. 
  • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.  
    • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”

  • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible. 

  • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).​

  • The 3-em dash (—) should be used to replace authors or editors’ names who hold multiple, successive entries in a bibliography.

 

For additional information visit Purdue:

CMS Sample Paper

CMS Guidelines

General Formatting

  1. Open MS Word
  2. Change the font to Times New Roman
  3. Change the font size to 12 pt.
  4. Click the Paragraph menu icon noted in the red box below:

  1. Change the spacing to 0 pt for Before and After
  2. Change the line spacing to Double
  3. Make sure the box is checked
  4. Click OK

 

 

9.  Click the Page Layout tab

10. Click the Margins icon

11. Click Normal (1” on all sides)

12. Click the Home tab

 

Header

  1. Click the Insert tab
  2. Click Header
  3. Click Blank
  4. Click the Home tab
  5. Click right alignment
  6. Type your last name
  7. Highlight the text and change the font type and font size to Times New Roman 12 pt.
  8. Hit the space bar one time after your last name
  9. Click the Insert tab
  10. Click Page Number
  11. Click Current Position
  12. Click Plain Number
  13. Click the Design tab
  14. Click Different First Page (title pages are not numbered)
  15. Click Close Header & Footer

 

Footnotes & Endnotes

  1. Click References
  2. Place the cursor where you want to insert the footnote/endnote
  3. Click Insert Footnote or Insert Endnote and type the information needed

 

Bibliography/References

  1. The last page of the paper
  2. Click center alignment and type Bibliography
  3. Hit the enter key one time
  4. Open the Paragraph dialog box
  5. Select Hanging from the Indentation/Special area and click OK

 

Navigate to the following resources for examples on in-text citations and your reference/bibliographic page.  

NB = Notes Bibliographic

AD = Author Date

 

The Chicago Manuel of Style Online - Notice the tabs for NB & AD

 

Purdue -  select your material type from the menu on the left.

  • Books
  • Periodicals
  • Web Sources
  • Film and Television
  • Interviews and Personal Communication
  • Lectures and Presentations
  • Public and Unpublished Materials

 

Citation Style Chart (MLA, APA, CMS): Purdue Quick Reference Chart

 

The Graduate Student

  • Footnotes
  • Endnotes
  • Reference Page

 

 

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